The Republic of Belarus is a transition economy with a strong focus on exports. Priority sectors include machinery and metalworking, oil refining, chemical production, power engineering, consumer goods and food processing, logging and woodworking. Trade, services, and the industrial sector are the main sources of the country's economic growth.
Belarus is one of the world’s largest manufacturers producing 17% of all combine harvesters, 6% of tractors, 6.4% of flax fiber, 1.6% of potatoes, and up to 30% of mine dump trucks.
Exports provide 50.52% of Belarus' GDP (Nov.2018) with more than a half of exported goods falling in the industrial products category. Major export items: machinery, transport vehicles, chemicals, petrochemical products, rubber, fibers, mineral products, primary metals, fertilizers, food, agricultural raw materials, as well as IT and transportation services. Belarus also holds about 5% in the world exports of dairy products and about 11% of butter.
Manufacturing is the main driver of the Belarusian economy. With a highly skilled workforce and cutting-edge manufacturing methods, the sector provides 28% of the country’s GDP.
Heavy industry is the country’s calling card with Belarus being one of the world’s largest suppliers of mining and quarrying vehicles, while MinskTractor Works produces a tenth of the world’s tractors and MAZ exports buses, coaches and trucks around the globe. Besides heavy industry and plant manufacturing, Belarus boasts capable light and engineering industries that churn out high-quality semiconductors, electrical goods, optics, and textiles.
Agriculture accounts for 15.65% of the country’s GDP providing a valuable source of foreign currency. Crop production slightly outweighs livestock production in Belarus’ product mix, accounting for around 55% of the gross agricultural output. Belarus's main agricultural products are barley, rye, oats, and wheat, as well as potatoes, flax, rapeseed, and sugar beets. Cereals and legumes (mainly barley and rye) take up 41 % of sown area and another 43% is under crops used for animal feed. Potatoes and vegetables take up 11 % of the sown area and industrial crops (sugar beets, flax, and rapeseed) the remaining 4%. Products of animal origin are mainly pork, beef, and poultry.
Most of the land is still publicly or collectively owned.
TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS
Located at the crossroads of centuries-old trade routes from Russia to Western Europe and from the Baltic to the Black Sea, Belarus has developed a solid transport infrastructure.
The country’s public roads stretch for 101 600 km, with over 86.47% of them paved.
The operational length of railway lines is 5491 km, with 1215 km of electrified railways, which accounts for 22.1% of the total railway network. Belarusian Railways is a railway network operator in Belarus handling 75% of the total freight traffic and more than 50% of the total passenger traffic.
The total length of oil pipelines is 2983 km, oil product pipelines – 751 km, gas pipelines – 7837 km
The country’s logistics infrastructure is represented by 38 logistics centers. The aggregate supply of warehousing space amounts to 870 000 sq m, while the floor space of Class Aand Class В warehouses constitutes more than 640 000 sq m.